Transmembrane protease serine 2
Plasma membrane-anchored serine protease that participates in proteolytic cascades of relevance for the normal physiologic function of the prostate. Androgen-induced TMPRSS2 activates several substrates that include pro-hepatocyte growth factor/HGF, the protease activated receptor-2/F2RL1 or matriptase/ST14 leading to extracellular matrix disruption and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. In addition, activates trigeminal neurons and contribute to both spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia (By similarity).; (Microbial infection) Facilitates human coronaviruses SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infections via two independent mechanisms, proteolytic cleavage of ACE2 receptor which promotes viral uptake, and cleavage of coronavirus spike glycoproteins which activates the glycoprotein for host cell entry. Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, increases syncytia formation by accelerating the fusion process. Proteolytically cleaves and activates the spike glycoproteins of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) and the fusion glycoproteins F0 of Sendai virus (SeV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, 4a and 4b viruses (HPIV). Essential for spread and pathogenesis of influenza A virus (strains H1N1, H3N2 and H7N9); involved in proteolytic cleavage and activation of hemagglutinin (HA) protein which is essential for viral infectivity.